Telemedicine by Satellite

You can conduct a telemedicine consultation over any kind of internet connection. For patients in remote areas with no connectivity, satellite internet is the answer. The VSee team relied on satellite internet when we deployed telemedicine to refugees in Iraqi Kurdistan.

Watch this video to learn more about how satellite internet works.

As you can see, satellite internet allows people to connect when wi-fi and 4G are out of the question. Thanks to satellite internet, anyone can see a doctor through telemedicine.

VSee CEO and Aneesh Chopra – Tech Argonauts on a Healthcare Adventure

Aneesh Chopra and Milton ChenMilton Chen, CEO of VSee got in some geek time with Aneesh Chopra last week to collaborate on one of Aneesh’s babies — the Argonaut Project— to make sharing electronic health records easier by using Internet open standards.

While standardizing electronic health information exchange doesn’t exactly sound like the stuff of myths and heroes, it is a monumental task, and the Argonaut Project is taking the challenge by the horns.  Specifically, it aims to fast-track develop a first-generation API that will allow health professionals to share electronic health records (EHR), documents, and other health information across different systems. Their work builds upon a framework called Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources, or FHIR. The HL7 standards commitee as well as several private companies and organizations— including athenahealthCernerEpicMayo Clinic, and McKesson— are coming together to make this vision a reality.

President Obama appointed Chopra to be the first Chief Technology Officer of the United States (CTO). Chopra previously served as the state of Virginia’s Secretary of Technology and is the author of Innovative State: How New Technologies Can Transform Government (May 2014).  Also, he recently started a new company called Hunch Analytics to more effectively use big data, especially in healthcare.

VSee Telemedicine Video Conferencing Now Aboard the International Space Station

International Space Station ISS

“STS132 undocking iss2” by NASA – Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons –

VSee is honored to be selected as NASA’s official video conferencing platform aboard the International Space Station (ISS).  With VSee’s secure video chat astronauts are able to do telemedicine video conferencing, have family video chats, collaborate with scientists in real time, do projects with school children, and watch their favorite programs using their iPads and laptops.

As simple as this sounds, it turns out that NASA has had to stick with using their older generation video conferencing technology because the newer modern software-based video chat systems like Skype, Vidyo, or Zoom just aren’t able to deal with the unique challenges of space to ground communications.

Byron Smith, Senior Medical IS Engineer at Wyle explains that the relatively long delays in a round-trip satellite communication plus the regular loss of information causes many of the newer generation video technologies to work poorly or even to fail, but “then VSee came along with a new approach to handling challenged networks such as those we deal with during ISS operations.”

We’re proud that VSee’s video technology is able to meet the challenges of space communications, and that we’re able to contribute to the work being done on the Space Station 🙂

Check out the full press release here

VSee and Chinese Medicine

We recently received this thank-you letter from Jonathan Berkowitz, LAc, who runs Inquisitive Owl Acupuncture in San Francisco:

Our practice was actually designed with hardworking software engineers in mind. Telemedicine is quite useful for people who work long hours, and who can’t take time away from the office. In addition, we stay open till 10:00pm on treatment days, to accommodate those can’t leave work until late.

I really do believe that Vsee is the next level tool for Chinese Medicine. It helps practitioners stay true to detailed diagnostic procedure. And by saving consultation time in the clinic, it allows them to put more clarity and intention into each treatment.

All the best,

Jonathan Berkowitz, MTOM, LAc

PS I had a patient today who was new to acupuncture and was nervous about the procedure. Because I had prepared thoroughly for her case beforehand, I was able to put my focus into making her feel comfortable with the process, instead of having to rush. The ability to give her that extra attention when it was needed, assured that her first experience with acupuncture was a positive one.

Two Upbeat Reports on Global Telemedicine

The-Economist-logo 2

Telemedicine has recently been featured in two different news outlets, the Economist and Healthcare Matters. This added attention suggests that the public is beginning to wake up to telemedicine’s potential.

According to the Economist: “Telemedicine is more than a Skype chat between doctor and patient, says Michael Young, who works on remote care for the University of North Carolina. The technology can look similar but the need for security and privacy is greater.”

Taking an international perspective, the Economist gives a useful primer on telemedicine’s legal status in the United States, including the patchwork of parity laws. It’s interesting to note that the European Union has a head start on adopting telemedicine: EU-member “countries may not pass laws that would stop doctors practising telemedicine, and doctors need only be licensed in one country to practise in all.” The article also points out that the US is falling behind a few small countries like Israel, whose “health-care system is fully digitized: all doctors use electronic medical records, and patients have access to their data.”

Meanwhile, Healthcare Matters features a report that says the global market for telehealth services at home is “surging” at a 24 percent annual rate of growth. “The telehome category,” they write, “the largest and fastest growing segment of the market, is forecast to jump from just $6.5 billion in 2013 to nearly $24 billion in 2019.”

These are strong forecasts, and even more good news for the future of telemedicine around the world.

Safer and Fewer Abortions with Telemedicine

telemedicine abortion

Telemedicine abortion has been a hot topic recently with Planned Parenthood losing a “telemedicine abortion” ban suit against Iowa.

Alana Semuels has explored the issue further in the Atlantic online, showing how telemedicine could impact women’s access to safe abortion.

Writes Semuels, “there is one procedure that, though it could be easily, safely, and cheaply administered via telemedicine, is widely unavailable: the termination of a pregnancy.”

Surprisingly, despite the greater convenience of telemedicine, “abortions did not increase in Iowa after telemedicine was introduced; instead, they decreased, part of a national trend in which abortions are decreasing.”

It will take changes to the laws of several states before most Americans have full access to telemedicine. There’s much more to this complex topic. Read the full article.

photo courtesy: Tony Leys via The Register

NSA Hacked UN Videoconferencing System According to New Snowden Documents

united nationsWhether it’s your typical Skype video chat or a secured United Nations videoconference, video communications are getting hacked.  German news magazine Der Spiegel reports that the latest documents leaked by whistleblower Edward Snowden shows that the NSA broke the code for the United Nations internal videoconferencing system at its New York headquarters during the summer of 2012. Within 3 weeks of the breakthrough, the number of intercepted video calls rose from 12 to 458.  Under international treaties, spying on the United Nations is illegal.  However, the NSA isn’t the only one who’s been doing it. According to the documents the Chinese had previously also made attempts to hack the system.

A GigaOm post also notes that the NSA tapped the EU embassy in the U.S. and regularly monitors over 80 consulates around the world, which is discussed more at length in an English version article from Der Spiegel.

Microsoft Skype Cooperated with NSA Surveillance Program From the Beginning

A few months earlier, The Guardian published excerpts from more Edward Snowden documents which revealed that Microsoft Skype participated in the NSA PRISM surveillance program. In the past, there have been allegations of Skype keeping decryption keys (which allows them to give others access to your information) and other security weakness concerns. These papers clearly show that Skype’s design did and still does allow for secret surveillance.  Indeed, Skype began its integration into the PRISM government surveillance program months before its acquisition by Microsoft. Moreover, the NSA and FBI have been able to mine Skype user data since February 6, 2011, the day right after Skype’s acquisition. Commentary from the NSA documents note:

“Feedback indicated that a collected Skype call was very clear and the metadata looked complete…. Collaborative teamwork [between NSA teams and the FBI] was the key to the successful addition of another provider to the Prism system.”

Source: The Guardian – Microsoft Hands NSA Access to Encrypted Messages

In 2012, NSA observed a 248% increase in Skype data collection with another note from the documents commenting, “exponential growth in Skype reporting; looks like the word is getting out about our capability against Skype.” Since the acquisition NSA has gained even more ability to gather Skype data. According to a Guardian article:

One document boasts that Prism monitoring of Skype video production has roughly tripled since a new capability was added on 14 July 2012. “The audio portions of these sessions have been processed correctly all along, but without the accompanying video. Now, analysts will have the complete ‘picture’,” it says.

Despite the leaked documents, Microsoft denies knowledge of the Prism program, asserting Skype’s privacy policy: “Skype is committed to respecting your privacy and the confidentiality of your personal data, traffic data and communications content.”

Would you trust Skype for private communications?

VSee in Gabon – Albert Schweitzer Hospital 100 Years Legacy

VSee telemedicine kit in Gabon jungleEric has had a crazy and amazing week bringing the VSee telemedicine suitcase into the jungles of Gabon. He has been setting up VSee satellite calls to bring Harvard doctors and Albert Schweitzer Hospital doctors face to face virtually for telehealth consultations.  And he has been training medical staff to use the VSee telemedicine kit. He also had the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to experience a Lambaréné, Gabon (where the hospital is located) as it celebrates the hospital’s 100 year anniversary to honor the legacy of Nobel Laureate, Albert Schweitzer and and inaugurates the new Centre Hospitalier Universitaire International Albert Schweitzer à Lambaréné. The Albert Schweitzer Centennial even brought the President of Gabon out to Lambaréné just for the occasion!

VSee telemedicine village checkVSee remote ultrasound village visitVSee telemedicine kit provides remote ultrasound on a village visit.

VSee to connect Harvard to HASVSee satellite call for a video telemedicine consultation between Dr. Jean-Daniel at the Albert Schweitzer hospital in Gabon and Dr. Sarosh Rana at Harvard’s Beth Israel in Boston.

Schweitzer hospital waits for Gabon presidentpresident of Gabon visits hospitalLambaréné celebrates Albert Schweitzer CentennialAlbert Schweitzer Centennial drummingAlbert Schweitzer Centennial dancer

President of Gabon, Ali Bongo Ondimba waving

There goes the President of Gabon, Ali Bongo Ondimba, waving!

Schweitzer med students watch gala

Albert Schweitzer Hospital med students watching the Centennial Symposium celebrations streaming live from the capital city of Libreville via satellite.

Check out what the rest of the VSee team has been doing in Africa.

See our photo journals from VSee’s last visit to Gabon and the Albert Schweitzer Hospital.

Google Loon – Moonshot To Bring Internet Access For All

Google Internet access balloon

Google recently unveiled its secret, ambitious Project Loon — a visionary project, involving the launch of an armada of “Internet balloons” to bring cheap Internet access to people all over the world.

Even as online resources and communications become an increasingly critical way to get healthcare, education, jobs and business opportunities, two-thirds of the world is still without Internet access. Most often these are people with low incomes or in rural areas. NDTV reports that only “11 percent of men and women in India have Internet access compared to 79 percent in the United States.” The stats are even more abysmal for much of Africa, where only 15.6 percent of the entire continent has Internet access. If this moonshot works, this could really begin to bridge the digital divide between those in the networked world and the majority in the offline world.

As former FCC official Karen Kornbluh said in a PBS interview “the Internet has become the innovation platform. It’s where we all come together to collaborate and innovate. And we all know we need more growth.  If we don’t have equal access, then we can’t have equal access to jobs and growth.”

Improving Healthcare with Telemedicine

One area that could be totally transformed by Google’s crazy scheme for universal Internet access is healthcare. Recently, there has been an explosive growth in telehealth and telemedicine as countries around the world look for creative ways to address healthcare burdens. However, without easy Internet access telemedicine may just end up a fringe technology for the elite. The good news is technology is getting better and making telemedicine more practical for everyone:

  • University of California San Diego is using telemedicine to cut down on their ER wait times which average a whopping 296 minutes.
  • The Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Gabon is using VSee telemedicine to provide remote ultrasound and to reduce maternal deaths.
  • Organizations like the Swinfen Charitable Trust and the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C. use telemedicine to provide excellent specialist care for children all over the world no matter where they are from pulling a tooth in Africa, heart surgery in Morocco or an orphanage in China, and services continue to expand.
  • LifePaths Global Alliance has been using telemedicine in Haiti to provide healthcare to over ten thousand Haitian living in the rural countryside following the 2010 earthquake.
  • In remote places like Nepal and Tibet telemedicine is a much needed medical resource for its inhabitants and is implemented at a national level. The problem, the Republica reports, is that “Lack of infrastructure is still the most important setback, while constant power cuts and unreliable internet connection are the other hindrances.” Google Loon could be key to making these services more reliable.

How Google Loon Internet Access Works

The idea is to have crowds of these solar-powered “Internet balloons” sailing the Earth’s stratosphere (above weather and air traffic). These networks of balloons can be navigated to areas of need where they pass signals from balloon to balloon and from balloon to ground where homes and network towers are located. Places equipped with the special Google Loon antenna can get 3G-like Internet speeds. Project Loon is currently being piloted with New Zealanders.

Until Google Loon proves to be feasible, broadband satellite may be the only alternative for those living off the grid and in places with poor infrastructure.

Related articles

photo courtesy: Trey Ratcliff via Google+



Nintendo Uses VSee To Remotely Animate Super Mario

VSee & Nintendo Super Mario AnimationVSee is making it possible for fans of the uber successful Nintendo Super Mario Bros. video game to have a live conversation with Mario himself down at the New York Rockefeller Center!

This longtime Nintendo project combines VSee with remote control of the animated Mario character. VSee gives the animator behind “Mario” the ability to hear, see, and talk with the audience. Meanwhile, Nintendo has created the animation and joystick control that allows the animator to remotely control Mario’s movements and expressions for a highly interactive and engaging experience.

Here’s a video of Mario in action, chatting away with “Princess Kiki” and “Princess Maritza” and showing off his famous flips and punches at the Nintendo World Store in New York.

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Big Science Summit In Review

Atlantic's Big Science Summit

Self-flying airplanes, exoskeletons that allow a paraplegic to walk, wireless elecric car rechargers, privatized space exploration, and of course, Milton’s talk on bridging distances with video are just a few of the exciting topics explored during The Atlantic’s Big Science Summit yesterday.

If you couldn’t be there or missed out on their live feed, be sure to check out highlights from the event.  Zac Unger did a great job covering Milton and Andrew McAfee’s talk about VSee and video collaboration:

Actual collaboration is difficult when there’s no actual contact…. According to VSee CEO Milton Chen, studies show that when you scatter people to multiple offices, productivity can drop by as much as 50%.

“We have the ability, thanks to the cloud … we can put people around the world in touch with not an only an infinite amount of computing technology” but also a wide variety of experts, [MIT’s Andrew McAfee] said Tuesday at The Atlantic‘s Big Science Summit in San Jose, Calif.

VSee technology, for example, can connect world class cardiologists with small-town medical centers, watching EKGs in realtime, and also allow far-flung family members to stay involved in the lives of their loved ones. In fact, VSee has already been used to connect Secretary of State Hillary Clinton (in Washington) with key players during the current Syrian uprising.

Source: The Atlantic

You should also check one of my other favorite stories: The Iron Man Comes To Life with Matt demonstrating the possibilities of mobility for paraplegics, astronauts, and who knows what else!  We’re definitely living in an age where science fiction is being realized every day!

Photo Highlights from Big Science Summit

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If FaceTime Gives Me A Double-Chin, Does Skype Make Me Look Fat?


I got a kick out of hearing about the “FaceTime Facelift” procedure recently developed by Dr. Robert K. Sigal, M.D., the director of the Austin-Weston Center For Cosmetic Surgery.  It turns out that people video calling on iPhones and mobile devices tend to look like they have a bit of a double-chin because of the position of their face when looking down towards the phone.  It also turns out that the usual face lift procedure won’t work to solve the problem because the cut is made under the chin right where everyone can see it as you’re looking down into your phone.  To solve the problem, Dr. Sigal developed his special “FaceTime Facelift” which places the cuts behind the ear where they are not visible when you’re using FaceTime.

Although right now I tell myself I would never undergo the knife for a chin tuck, the truth is that the growth of media technology has made appearances more important that ever before.

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Why It’s Important To See Your Coworkers

monkey see, monkey do

Summary:  Mirror neurons may be the key to explaining why it’s so important to see people for social interactions.

With the remote work revolution seriously getting underway, a recent article from Knowledge @ Wharton Today reminds us that remote workers may be losing more knowledge than we know from the lack of face-to-face contact and physical proximity with their coworkers. More specifically, neuroscience research on “mirror” brain cells gives new meaning to the phrase “monkey see, monkey do.”Continue Reading…

VSee’s Organizational Structure (Humor)

This was my unartistic take on VSee’s “corporate” structure (I don’t think we’re big enough to be corporate) after seeing Manu Cornet‘s hilarious comic Organizational Charts, picturing the organizational structures of major companies like Facebook and Google. Guess which one is Milton 🙂

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A Missing Link in the History of the Videophone

There are many historical time lines of videoconferencing on the Internet. A nice one is from an earlier post on this very blog. Most of these histories identify the AT&T ikonophone as the first working video phone. Although a milestone in its own right, it was not the first videophone as we think of them today. While the audio was two-way, the video was only one-way.

The first true videophone system, with two-way video and two-way audio, came about in Nazi Germany.

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Milton lunches with Advisor to the White House Office of Science and Technology

Milton was invited to lunch with Doug Rand last weekend. Doug Rand is the Advisor to the White House Office of Science and Technology and the architect of Startup America.


Sold! And Skype goes to…Microsoft?

Skype, after holding off on plans to launch an initial public offering IPO and amidst rumors of possible acquisition by Cisco, Google, and Facebook, is being acquired by Microsoft for an unsolicited offer of 8.5 billion in cash.

Many analysts feel it’s a bit more than the company is worth and see it as a desperation attempt on Microsoft’s part to gain a foothold in Internet consumer markets.  In particular, it hasn’t been much of a competitor in the mobile operating system market where Apple, Blackberry, and Google’s Android have pretty much got it covered.  GigaOm’s Om Malik notes that it would give them a “big boost in the hotly contested enterprise collaboration market thanks to Skype’s voice, video and sharing capabilities.”

CRN’s Chad Bernston also reports that Microsoft intends for Skype “to support Microsoft devices like XBox and Kinect, Windows Phone and a number of Windows devices…[they] also plan to connect it with Lync, Outlook, Xbox Live and other communities.”

Despite Skype’s overwhelming popularity (it claims 170 million connected users, who held 207 billion minutes of voice and video conversations in 2010), it has been losing money, and the majority of it’s users use it for free.

At the end of the day, it will be interesting to see how Microsoft integrates Skype with its wide-ranging products and whether its bet on Skype will pay off.

(My Layman’s Take: Skype is losing money.  Microsoft is losing money.  The thing is everybody LOVES Skype, and more importantly, it’s everywhere that Microsoft isn’t–namely smartphones, iPads, and my grandmother’s computer.  The question is whether this marriage between graying Microsoft and a vibrant, young Skype will result in economic bliss, epic tragedy, or even a good old American divorce.)

More Articles:

NY Times: Microsoft buys Skype for 8.5 Million

TechCrunch: Did Microsoft overpay for Skype? Hell yes — by $4.5 billion

Cisco WebEx: “Little to no Work-Life Balance”


Wow.  I would like to go on record right now as stating that at VSee, any work-life imbalance is due purely to our fanaticism and not slave-driving!  🙂

That image is taken from, a site for job hunters and recruiters, which also posts employee reviews so the candidates can research whether they’d like to apply to a company or not.

I don’t know if it’s because we’re smaller or, uh…hmm.  Never mind.  I’m not at all sure why we’re able to sustain a good work-life balance here and they aren’t.

Roughly half of our company works remotely.  With only a couple exceptions, those remaining are hybrid workers: Sometimes they come into the office; sometimes they work from home.  Those of us with two-income families often trade part of our work day for part of our evening to pick kids up from daycare/school/soccer.  In the case of one family where both parents work at VSee, they usually work from home and have their child in their lap while talking with other VSee employees.  Add the previously mentioned dose of fanaticism and most of us do some work late at night as well–by choice!

Not to rub it in for the “Territory Account Manager”, but our lovely east coast employees got to happily work from home while you were forced to go to the office in the snow.  And a couple of them lease office space for those times they wish to have that environment!

I must also question TAM’s assertion  of “Best in breed product.”  I honestly believe VSee is far better equipped for doing business “Any where.  Any time.”  (I’ll admit, we’re still working on “Any device.”)  Multiple people can share multiple documents from multiple locations ALL AT THE SAME TIME…something you just can’t do with WebEx.  And you can be talking with “Joe”, decide the two of you need to also talk to “Amy”, and call her in without sending an email invite.  You really don’t know how important those two capabilities are for maintaining a more natural workflow until you’ve used them.  (Shameless plug time:  Go try it out! then watch the demo video on the homepage.)

Follow us on Twitter (@VSee) and Like us on Facebook to hear about the latest from VSee! By the way, we are hiring too.

Helping Haiti on Facebook: Linkin Park, the UN Foundation and VSee


On Tuesday, Feb 22nd, VSee enabled “Haiti Today, Haiti Tomorrow”—A Facebook Town Hall, featuring Linkin Park and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, and the CEO of the UN Foundation.

They were talking about the ongoing relief efforts in Haiti and how you can support the UN and its partners in helping Haiti rebuild and transform.  They talked from LA, San Francisco, and DC via VSee to their moderator, Randi Zuckerberg, Director of Market Development at Facebook.  Viewers sent questions in real time and participated in the discussion.

We did it by hosting the VSee meeting on an additional computer which funneled all the feeds into one.  This feed was then streamed through Ustream to the UN Foundation’s Facebook page.

The Facebook Town Hall for Haiti provided a unique opportunity to keep a broad public audience engaged in support for Haiti after last year’s earthquake.  The involvement of Linkin Park with its tremendous fan base (20 million Facebook fans) helped connect new parts of the Facebook community with the UN, the UN Foundation, and USAID.  The online impact was matched by a clear message:  people around the world want to connect with Haiti and help partners make a positive difference.  Tens of thousands of attendees watched live and asked questions as representatives from the United Nations, members of Linkin Park, the USAID,  and the UN Foundation’s very own Kathy Calvin spoke about the latest developments in Haiti and ways for individuals to continue helping the Haitian people one year after the devastating earthquake.  In addition the Town Hall was featured in more than 80 news articles, and has garnered coverage in such outlets as Look to the Stars,, The Los Angeles Times and The Huffington Post.

Thank you everyone who attended.  To keep abreast of more events as they come up, please go to our Facebook page!

Here’s Milton with Linkin Park at the Facebook offices…


The Dark Side of Video Conferencing

While video calling is great in  many ways (see Top 10 Reasons To Use Videoconferencing), it’s not a replacement for face-to-face meetings.  First impressions do count, and if you aren’t careful, you  could be headed for a video calling wipeout.  Just look at the effect of video (i.e.,  television) on Nixon’s bid for the presidency in 1960.  It cost Nixon the election because no one at that time understood the visual impact of the then new television medium, and subsequently he  refused to appear on televised debates  (Webley 2010).

So what are some issues to beware of in video conferencing?  As I mentioned  earlier, first impressions count, and unfortunately, delays and distortions caused by technology glitches are often perceived as flaws in the person rather than flaws in the technology (Chen 2003).  Although video conferencing technology has vastly improved over the last 50 years, network delays and video distortion are still facts of life and need to be anticipated.

Previous research clearly established the importance of audio over video in communication.  Audio delays in particular can be the kiss of death when trying to make a good impression.  For example,  Kitawaki, et al., (1993) found that delayed audio can cause a speaker to be viewed as “slow” or, as the London  Economist (1969) so delicately put it in the days before political correctness,  it’s like “talking to a mentally defective foreigner” (Egido 1988, p. 15).   Ruhleder & Jordan (2001) explored a host of misinterpretations caused by delays in the split second timing needed to smoothly take turns during a discussion and repair mishearings.  These unintentional pauses can, at worst, lead to people being perceived as incompetent, socially awkward, or having a negative attitude.  At best, they’re a nuisance to be patiently borne.  This is not such a big deal when working with people you know, but it slows down the already difficult process of building trust with people across distances.  Finally, Isaacs & Tang (1993) found that more delay meant fewer interruptions and fewer speaker changes, which meant fewer interactions, and thus, lower-quality collaboration.

Furthermore, while people are more willing to tolerate video problems than audio problems, you shouldn’t push your luck.  Even though we like to make fun of bad movie dubbings, research tells us that out-of-sync lips and audio makes you come  across as being less trustworthy and less believable (Reeves and Nass 1996).

There is also the problem of eye contact which is often difficult to achieve in video conferencing due to limitations in webcam positioning.  Huang, et al., (2002) found that whether the camera angle makes you look taller or shorter can also impact your power and influence in negotiations.

Lastly, one study even found that some people got cases of “video aversion” or “video anxiety” when they saw themselves in a video conference.  It caused high negative feelings which were sometimes transferred to the service providing the conference (Wegge 2006).  It’s probably safe to assume that video conferencing won’t be on their list of things-to-do in the near future.

In spite of these nontrivial issues, video conferencing is a growing trend.  Just as television is an important media tool even though Nixon crashed and burned on his first televised debate, video conferencing technology is also becoming an indispensable tool in today’s global economy.


1.  Chen, M. 2003. Conveying conversational cues through video. Dissertation, Stanford  University.

2.  Egido, C. 1988. Video Conferencing as a Technology to Support Group Work: A Review  of its Failures.  In Proc. of CSCW 1988: 13-24.

3.   Huang, W., Olsen, J.S. & Olsen, G.M. 2002.  Camera angle affects dominance in  video-mediated communication.  In Proc. of CHI’02 extended abstracts on Human  Factors in computing systems, 716-717, NY: ACM Press.

4.  Kitawaki, K., Kurita, T. & Itoh, K. 1991. Effects of Delay on Speech Quality. NTT  Review 3: 88-94.

5.  Reeves, B. and Nass., C., 1996. The Media Equation : How People Treat Computers,  Television, and New Media like Real People and Places. University of Chicago  Press.

6.  Ruhleder, K. & Jordan, B. 2001. Co-constructing non-mutual realities:  Delaygenerated trouble n distributed interaction. Computer Supported Cooperative  Work, 10, 113-138.

7.  Tang, J., & Isaacs, E. (1993). Why do users like video? Studies of multimedia-supported collaboration. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1, 163-193.

8.  Webley, K. 2010.  How the Nixon-Kennedy debate changed the world.  Time Magazine,  September 23. Accessed January 27, 2011.,8599,2021078,00.html

9.  Wegge, J. 2006. Communication via Videoconference: Emotional and Cognitive  Consequences of Affective Personality Dispositions, Seeing One’s Own Picture, and  Disturbing Events. Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 21, No. 3: 273-318.

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